Location & Area
The district covers an area of 10,83,165 Bighas and 13 Lessas (1450.02 Sq. Kms).
The district is bounded by the mighty Brahmaputra on the North, Karbi Anglong district on the South, Nagaon District on the East and Kamrup District on the West.
The greater part of the district is an alluvial plain, criss-crossed with numerous rivers and water ways and dotted with many beels and marshes. The mighty Brahmaputra flows along with the northern boundary of the district. Killing, Kollong and Kapili rivers flow through the southern part of of the district. The Killing meets the Kapili at the Matiparbat where from Kapili moves westward. The Kollong joins Kapili at the Jagi Dui Khuti Mukh and from here they jointly fall into the Brahmaputra.
The general appearance of the district is extremely picturesque. On a clear day in the winter the view to the north is bounded by the blue ranges of the outer Himalayas, behind which snowy peaks glisten brightly in the sun, while to the west and the south of the district lie range upon range of lower hills, whose sides are covered with luxuriant vegetation of the tropical forest.
There are three Reserved Forest constituted under Assam Forest Regulation Act, 1891. These are Sunaikuchi, Khulahat, and Bura Mayong. There is also one wildlife Sanctuary, named Pabitara, which is famous for the Indian one horned Rhinoceros.
The history of Morigaon is obscure. One famous traditional ruler of the region was Arimatta whose history is shrouded in mystery. After Arimattas's death, Jongalbalahu, his son ruled over the region. Jongalbalahu was ultimately killed by the Kacharis with a bamboo spear near Kajalimukh.
The legend further goes on to say that Jongalbalahu to escape his pursuers, submerged himself in Kollong river and emerge at Raha to quench his thirst and again dived here to emerge at Jagi. From this incident were derived the names of present day Raha and Jagi.
The writing of Bhimsingh throws some light on the history of present Morigaon town and its adjoining areas. This region was ruled independently by six rulers. During this time two princes from Darrang, Supradhvaj and Makardhvaj, fled from their homeland due to internal clash, by crossing the mighty Brahmaputra and they settled at Bahakajari. Later on, Supradhvaj married the daughter of Mangalsingh, the King of Baghara. Supradhvaj was then made the seventh king of the region, having an independent kingdom of his own.
During the days of Lachit Borphukan, another two princes from Darrang, Ram Singh and Bhimsingh crossed the Brahmaputra in search of plain lands. After Bhim Singh settled down, meanwhile, Ram Singh left for his home. Bhim Singh was not liked by the local people, hence, he left Brahmaputra and settled down near Mori Beel. This place came to known as Morigaon.
Marigaon became a fully-fledged district on 29 September 1989, when it was split from Nagaon district.
Sub -tropical with semi dry hot in summer and cold in winter.
|Annual rainfall||Ranges between 1500 mm. to 2600 mm.|
|Average humidity||75 %|
|Max. tamp.||37-39 degree C.|
|Min. temp.||6-7 degree C.|
TOPOGRAPHY: The district is bound by the mighty Brahmaputra river on the North,Karbi Anglong district on the South, Nagaon district on the East and Kamrup district on the West.
RIVERS:The mighty Brahmaputra flows along the northern boundary of the district. Killing, Kollong and Kapile rivers flows through the southern part of the district.
Culture & Festivals
Unique Confluence of Morigaon
Magic and Necromancy of Mayong :
Mayong is a historical place, located on the bank of the River Brahmaputra which is only 40 KM away from the district headquarter Morigaon. It is situated baside Pobitora Sanctury, the place of World famous one horned Rhinos. In the 16th century, Shunyat Singha, the youngest brother of the Kachari King Shatrudaman of Mayong established the Kingdom of Mayong. This place was popularly Known for its magic and necromancy. Wherever people heard of Mayong about "Jantra-Mantra" they are terrified and ankious.
Based on the Vedic Dharma, the tradition and faith of the ancient society had evolved in the 4th and 5th centuries under which the practice of magic became appareut. In course of time in the 17th Century the different & ects of Buddhism got miked wrth Hindu religion .Such tradition got spread by taking Maa kamakhya (the goddess kamakhya) as its centre . during that time the society has been tremendously influence by the supernatural activities of the Mahajani (one arrow of Kamdeua) marrau (the act of killing or striking)people got in vowed in such activities instedd of performing their own religion such traditions and faith had developed among the people wrth the faith in supreme goddess maa- kamakhya. According to yogini jantra, the main place maa - kamakhya was hundred gorge (a distance of Nine miles) of length and thirty gorge of width. This means that the Mayang was contained to this particular area, In course of time, due to the increase of sustain, so a lonely and remote place in the cast era side, Mayang was chosen to perform such activities. The devotees continued such performances by erecting four idols of Ganesha (son of Siva and pervade) in four different sides, Such practices of magic and necromancy of the past made mayang famous as a land of magic and necromancy (Jantra-Mantra)
It was believed that the influences of magic and necromancy had been tremendous. It recovered people from suffering of diseases could save from the attack of wild animals, form evil torces, devils and demons etc. By applying wondertal Jantra â€“Mantra. Even to save the selves form enemies and to beat the enemies, Propel used to apply Karati ; guaranty; Barkarati ; Panikarati; Sarba - dhak Karati, Pakshiraj mantra, Narasingha Mantra had been used. The magic and necromancy is believed to have performed many supernatural activities like making a fish from a leaf of trees, making the cooked fish alive the sitting pira (a stool) got attached to the guest etc. The fame of Mayang as land of Magic and necromancy is still alive which is famous not only in Morigaonn but also in the country.
Jonbeel mela is a folk festival of tiwa lalung wrrmunity centered on ancient bortor System with its distinctive features, the festival has been observed since ancient time of gobha kingdom it is held on the bank of junbeel (water area) which looks like a crescent moon . Beside Morigaon Jagiroad main road four kilomentres north east of of Jagiroad town and two kilometers of Jagibhakatgaon . It is held for three days just a week after the Sankranti of Assamese Puh mounth generally from Thursday to Satarday .the Magh Bihu festival of the Gobha Kindom is observed on the Saturday and Sunday of the Second week in the month of magh (January- February).
The beginning of the mela with the bartar System its back ground is historical,Among the tiwa (Lalung) Kings,the Gobha King was the most powerful . with a view to ruling lis subjects efficiently, to Communicating his subjects, to integrating economically the hills and plains people, to establishing their relations, the King ofGobhga established community mart at phulaguri (only three Kilometres south to the National Highway,37 near nelli) to exchange their eventual commodities. Even the than Jaintia King and the offices of Ahom king assembled there to exchange their opinions. It was necessary to exchange the essential commodities as the Gobha King did not used currency in their Kingdom. In barter system is the consequence of the decision of Gobha king to be held on the bank of Jonbeel, a suitable place selected for ceremonial festival for exchanging their necessary goods, the neighboring tiwa king Jayantia king were also invited to the mela and therefore a festive was set forth. Now, the mela has been transformed into a community market which trans cents the differences of geography, religion Castes and genders. The hills people bring with then items like sesame, giager, turmeric, arum, potato, lac, chillies, cotton, cane & bamboo products, rice cakes of the plains tiwas, Such ancient barter system is still intact .the community fishing in Junbeel is also an integral part of the mela, now, the people outside Morigaon district also participle in the festival, Now the people outside Morigaon district also participate in the festival, particularly people from neighoubering Nagaon, Kamrup and Karbianglong district of Assam and many people from Meghalaya also participate in the Mela. The people of other parts of Assam also attend the Junbeel Mela which creats a good atmosphere among the people and helps to maintain unity and amity in the society. Thus, Junbeel Mela become a festival of communal integration and harmony.
Gosoin Uliwa Utsav:- A particular type of Mela is observed in different places of Morigaon and Nagaon District of Assam after the Bohag Bihu festival that continues to the last day of the Jetha Month.This festival is known as Gosoiuliwa or Bohagi Mela Firstly, it is organized in Jopakudi then it has been observing in different places like Barapujia, Charaibahi, Niz-Mikirgaon, Jarabari, Habiborongabari, Mayang etc. The last Mela of the season is held on the last day ie. 31 st of Jetha month at Doloisuba which is known as 'Bohagi Mela'. At present hundreds of such Mela is organized in different villages of Morigaon district irrespective of caste and community, people assemble there with enthusiasm and love. Guests from neighoubering village are invited to every household on the occasion of the Mela. Relationship among the people and Kith and Kin are refreshened and have merriment and enjoyment.
It is noteworthy here to the fact that, initially this folk festival was organized and institutionalized in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries under the patronage of the Jiwa Puwai rajas. Accordingly to heresay Chalarai, the brother of the Koch King Naranarayan , was captured by the Nawab of Gour while going to attack his kingdom, in order to attack Gour king Naranarayan sought hilp and co- operational from the Jiwa Puwali rajas of Pachuraja and saturajas kingdom, incidently, the Nawab's mother was bitten by a snake. The Nawab's mother was asved under the treatment of Chalarai. To show his gratitude, the Nawab released Chalarai with honour and dignity. So they did not need to fight. But Koch King Naranarayan showed his gratitude to the Puwali rajas of Jiwa Kingdom by giving gifts and honour to organized festivity, since then Mela was organized by Jiwa Puwali rajas where people dance with swords and shields of wars. According by Sridhar Kandaki Melas were organized as a mark of complimentary to 'phakua' (Holi festival) on the day of Namghar and temporal established on the pedestal under the temporally constructed 'rabhaghar' made of kalpat placed in the monikut ; Hearsay again informs us that when 'Damodar ataa' gave 'saran' to chetua, one of the Pachu rajas in order to propagate Baishnab religion, aduised to organize Doul utssau .It is clear from the about hearsays that the Gosaiauiwa utsau emerged under the patronage of the Tiwa king. Now a days, it is 'Namghar' and 'Manikut' are cleansed. Khatula is constructed in a hierarchically shaped wooden shelves where 'Gunamala' or 'Bhagawat' is placed in the same places, idols of Krishna or Bishnu or other is placed temporarily under the 'Rabhaghar'. The King and the other officials before the sun sets, the Khatula is carried to its original place. With the rhythm of the 'Barshul', the Baruotis dance with shields and swords, In this way, the Gosain Uliwa Utsav or Mela Utsav is organished after Rangali Bihu festival in different places of Morigaon District.
Komiti Bhawna of Charaibahi
Charaibahi a historical Place. The trienmial komiti Bhawna of Charaibahi is observed here once after a gop of three years with great enthusiasm and gaiety. Sinc 1858 A.D. people have been observing it by performing the noble creation of Naat-Bhawna of Sri Sri Sankardev. When Indian came under British rule through East Indian company there was in sense exploitation and tyranny on Indians. Due to the excessive and uncontrolled rapacity and brutality of the company officials, queen Victoria ended the Company's rule by a proclamation on 1st November, 1858. And taken Indian's administration under direct control of British rule thus the Queen became the sovereignty of Indian the direct rule of the Brictish Crown was expected to become more benign, to be a pamacea to exploitation, tyranny 'Rabhaghar' during the full moon period in the Assamese season of 'sarat' There are sixteen Aukiya Bhawauas in lotal are performed by sixteen different 'khels'. Thousands of people assemble there to enjoy the Bhawna performances. Various communities Charaibahi area like Nath(Yogi), Tiwa(Lalung), Karbi, Kalita, Ahom, Brahmon, Chutia, Hira etc participate in the festival with cooperation and love. Charaibahi is located 15 kms away from the district headquarter of Morigaon. The cultural heritage of Morigaon district has been greatly enriched by the 150 years celebration of Komiti Bhawna in 2007 A.D. with renewed focused on a glorified tradition.